2019-07-15 17:37 供稿單位: 新航道
Much of the world's great architecture has been constructed of stone because of its beauty, permanence, and availability. In the past, whole cities grew from the arduous task of cutting and piling stone upon. Some of the world's finest stone architecture can be seen in the ruins of the ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu high in the eastern Andes Mountains of Peru. The doorways and windows are made possible by placing over the open spaces thick stone beams that support the weight from above. A structural invention had to be made before the physical limitations of stone could be overcome and new architectural forms could be created. That invention was the arch, a curved structure originally made of separate stone or brick segments. The arch was used by the early cultures of the Mediterranean area chiefly for underground drains, but it was the Romans who first developed and used the arch extensively in aboveground structures. Roman builders perfected the semicircular arch made of separate blocks of stone. As a method of spanning space, the arch can support greater weight than a horizontal beam. It works in compression to divert the weight above it out to the sides, where the weight is borne by the vertical elements on either side of the arch. The arch is among the many important structural breakthroughs that have characterized architecture throughout the centuries.
Why does the author include a description of how the "doorways and windows" of Machu Picchu were constructed?
A.To indicate that the combined skeletons and skins of the stone buildings of Machu Picchu were similar to igloos and adobe structures.
B.To indicate the different kinds of stones that had to be cut to build Machu Picchu.
C.To provide an illustration of the kind of construction that was required before arches were invented.
D.To explain how ancient builders reduced the amount of time necessary to construct buildings from stone.
我們可以利用題干中的“doorways and windows”of Machu Picchu 定位至段落第四行，按照之前的方法閱讀會發現前文并不難理解，講述了最早的建筑都是由石頭構成還有石頭蓋房的好處，并且在秘魯的安第斯山脈上有最好的石頭建成建筑的遺跡。但是，悲傷的事發生了，在選項中并沒有一個合適的。所以，在 ETS 出題的過程中有些作者目的題的答案是在例子的后面。于是就可以往后閱讀，會發現文章中有這樣的描寫“A structural invention had to be made before the physical limitations of stone could be overcome and new architectural forms could be created. That invention was the arch,...” 也就是“（設計師們）必須在克服石頭的物理限制以及新建筑形式發展之前發明出建筑結構，這就是拱形結構，……”那么，結合上下文之后作者為什么要提“馬丘比丘的門和窗”呢？選擇答案易如反掌是 C。常規類型的第三種是觀點和例子結合成了一句話，如：
The astrolabe had long been the primary instrument for navigation, having been introduced in the eleventh century. It operated by measuring the height of the Sun and the fixed stars: by calculating the angles created by these points, it determined the degree of latitude at which one stood (The problem of determining longitude, though, was not solved until the eighteenth
century.) By the early thirteenth century, Western Europeans had also developed and put into use the magnetic compass, which helped when clouds obliterated both the Sun and the stars. Also beginning in the thirteenth century, there were new maps refined by precise calculations and the reports of sailors that made it possible to trace one's path with reasonable accuracy.
Certain institutional and practical norms had become established as well. A maritime code known as the Consulate of the Sea , which originated in the western
Mediterranean region in the fourteenth century, won acceptance by a majority of sea goers as the normative code for maritime conduct; it defined such matters as the authority of a ship's officers, protocols of command, pay structures, the rights of sailors, and the rules of engagement when ships met one another on the sea-lanes. Thus by about 1400, the key elements were in place to enable Europe to begin its seaward adventure. Why does the author include the information that Western Europeans had developed and put into use the magnetic compass?
A.To provide an example of an instrument that was developed after caravels had begun traveling across oceans.
B.To provide an example of an improvement that resulted directly from the invention of the astrolabe.
C.To identify one of the technological advances that made sea trade with the East possible.
D.To explain how the problem of determining longitude was solved.
根據問題中的關鍵詞 magnetic compass 可以定位到文章的第五行，但是由于句中的also，可知磁針羅盤和星盤是并列關系，即兩者都是重要的航海定位工具，所以 C 選項是正確答案。此題即例子和觀點合成一句話。此次分享了常規的作者目的題的做法，希望能夠幫助大家在托福考試的過程中取得好的成績！