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          SAT2化學知識點匯總

          2019-04-29 17:33     供稿單位: 網絡    

          出國英語考試有哪些 雅思6.5是什么水平 雅思閱讀評分標準 托福閱讀評分標準 雅思和托福的區別

            SAT2化學知識點匯總

            (一)Introduction to Chemistry 化學入門

            Matter 物質

            Definition of Water(物質的定義)

            States of Matter(物質的狀態)

            Composition of Matter (物質的構成)

            Chemical and Physical Properties(化學性質和物理性質)

            Chemical and Physical Changes (化學變化和物理變化)

            Conservation of Mass (質量守恒)

            Energy 能量

            Definition of Energy(能量的定義)

            Forms of Energy(能量的形式)

            Types of Reactions(Exothermic Versus Endothermic) 反應類型(放熱對吸熱)

            Conservation of Energy (能量守恒)

            Conservation of Mass and Energy(質能守恒)

            Scientific Method(科學方法)

            Measurements and Calculations(測量和計算)

            Metric System(指標系統)

            Temperature Measurements(溫度測量)

            Heat Measurements(熱量測量)

            Scientific Notation (科學記數法)

            Factor-Label Method of Conversion(Dimensional Analysis)轉換方法(量綱分析)

            Precision, Accuracy, and Uncertainty(精密度,準確度,不確定度)

            Significant Figures(有效數字)

            Calculations with Significant Figures (有效數字的計算)


            (二)Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table of the Elements原子結構&元素周期表

            Electric Nature of Atoms原子的電本質

            History (歷史)Basic Electric Charges(基本電荷)

            Bohr Model of the Atom(原子的波爾模型)

            Components of Atomic Structure(原子結構構成)

            Calculating Average Atomic Mass(計算平均原子量)

            Oxidation Number and Valence(氧化數和化合價)

            Metallic, Nonmetallic, and Noble Gas Structures(易失電子.易得電子.惰性氣體結構)

            Reactivity(反應)

            Atomic Spectra 原子光譜

            Spectroscopy(光譜學)

            Mass Spectroscopy (質譜學)

            The Wave-Mechanical Model 波動力學模型

            Quantum Numbers(量子數)

            Hund’s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity 很大規模多重性洪特法則

            Sublevels and Electron Configuration 原子內電子排布

            Order of Filing and Notation(電子填充次序和命名)

            Electron Dot Notation(Lewis Dot Structures)(Lewis 點結構)

            Noble Gas Notation(稀有氣體元素)

            Transition Elements and Variable Oxidation Numbers(過渡元素和可變的氧化數)

            Period Table of the Elements元素周期表

            History(歷史)

            Periodic Law(周期律)

            The Table(周期表)

            Properties Related to the Periodic Table(元素周期表的性質)

            Radii of Atoms(原子半徑)

            Atomic Radii in Periods(同周期的原子半徑)

            Atomic Radii in Groups(同族的原子半徑)

            Ionic Radius Compared to Atomic Radius(相對原子半徑的離子半徑)

            Electro negativity(電負性)

            Electron Affinity(電子親和能)

            Ionization Energy(電離能)


            (三)Bonding 化學鍵

            Types of Bonds 化學鍵類型

            Ionic Bonds(離子鍵)

            Covalent Bonds(共價鍵)

            Metallic Bonds(金屬鍵)

            Intermolecular Forces of Attraction 分子間的吸引力

            Dipole-Dipole Attraction(極性分子間的吸引力)

            London Forces(倫敦力)

            Hydrogen Bonds(氫鍵)

            Double and Triple Bonds(雙鍵和三鍵)

            Resonance Structures(共振結構)

            Molecular Geometry—VSEPR—and Hybridization 分子幾何學—價層電子對互斥理論和雜化軌道理論

            VSEPR—Electrostatic Repulsion(VSEPR—價層電子對互斥理論)

            VSEPR and Unshared Electron (VSEPR和非共享電子對)

            VSEPR and Molecular Geometry(VSEPR和分子幾何學)

            Hybridization(雜化軌道理論)

            Sigma and Pi Bonds (Sigma鍵和Pi鍵)

            Properties of Ionic Substances(離子化合物的性質)

            Properties of Molecular Crystals and Liquids (分子晶體與液晶的性質)

            Chemical Formulas 化學分子式

            Writing Formulas (寫分子式)

            General Observations About Oxidation States and Formula Writing(氧化狀態和分子式寫作的一般性結論)

            More About Oxidation Numbers (關于氧化數)

            Naming Compounds (化合物命名)


            (四)Chemical Formulas (化學分子式)

            Laws of Definite Composition and Multiple Proportions (定比定律和倍比定律)

            Writing and Balancing Simple Equations (寫作和平衡簡單方程式)

            Showing Phases in Chemical Equations (化學平衡式)

            Writing Ionic Equations (書寫離子方程式)


            (五)Gases and the Gas Laws 氣體和氣體定律

            Introduction—Gases in the Environment(入門—環境中的氣體)

            Some Representative Gases(一些有代表性的氣體)

            Oxygen(氧氣)

            Hydrogen(氫氣)

            General Characteristics of Gases(氣體的基本特征)

            Measuring the Pressure of a Gas(測量氣壓)

            Kinetic Molecular Theory(氣體動力論)

            Some Particular Properties of Gases(氣體的特殊性質)

            Gas Laws and Related Problems(氣體定律和相關的難題)

            Graham’s Law(格銳目定律)

            Charles’s Law(查理定律)

            Boyle’s Law(波義耳定律)

            Combined Gas Law(混合氣體定律)

            Pressure Versus Temperature(氣壓和溫度)

            Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures (道爾頓分壓定律)

            Corrections of Pressure(壓力校正)

            Ideal Gas Law(理想氣體定律)

            Ideal Gas Deviations(理想氣體偏差)


            (六)Chemical Calculations(Stoichiometry)and the Mole Concept 化學計算器&摩爾內容

            Solving Problems in Chemistry(解答化學難題)

            The Mole Concept(摩爾內容)

            Molar Mass and Moles(摩爾質量和摩爾)

            Mole Relationships(摩爾關系)

            Gas Volumes and Molar Mass(氣體體積和摩爾質量)

            Density and molar Mass(密度和摩爾質量)

            Mass-Volume Relationships(摩爾與體積的關系)

            Mass-Mass Problems(質量—質量難題)

            Problems with an Excess of One Reactant(涉及某一反應物多余的難題)


            (七)Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes 液體,固體和狀態變化

            Liquids(液體)Importance of Intermolecular Interaction(分子間相互作用的重要性)

            Kinetics of Liquids(液體動力學)

            Viscosity(粘性)

            Surface Tension(表面張力)

            Capillary Action(毛細作用)

            Phase Equilibrium(平衡狀態)

            Boiling Point(沸點)

            Critical Temperature and Pressure(臨界溫度和臨界壓力)

            Solids(固體)

            Phase Diagrams(狀態圖表)

            Water(水)

            History of Water(水的歷史)

            Purification of Water(水凈化)

            Composition of Water(水的構成)

            Properties and Uses of Water(水的性質和使用)

            Water’s Reactions with Anhydrides(水和堿性氧化物的反應)

            Polarity and Hydrogen Bonding(極性和氫鍵)

            Solubility(可溶性)

            General Rules of Solubility(可溶性的基本原則)

            Factors That Affect Rate of Solubility(影響溶解率的因素)

            Summary of Types of Solutes and Relationships of Type to Solubility (溶液類型和類型之間關系的總結)

            Water Solutions(水處理)

            Continuum of Water Mixtures(水混合溶劑)

            Expressions of Concentration(濃度的表達)

            Dilution(稀釋)

            Colligative Properties of Solutions(溶液的依數性)

            Crystallization(結晶化)


            (八)Chemical Reactions and Thermochemistry 化學反應和熱化學

            Types of Reactions(反應類型)

            Predicting Reactions(預知化學反應)

            Combination(Known Also as Synthesis(化合反應)

            Decomposition(Known Also as Analysis(分解反應)

            Single Replacement(置換反應)

            Double Replacement(復分解反應)

            Hydrolysis Reactions(水解反應)

            Entropy(熵)

            Thermochemistry(熱化學)

            Changes in Enthalpy(焓變化)

            Additivity of Reaction Heats and Hess’s Law(反應熱加成性定律—赫士定律)

            Bond Dissociation Energy(鍵裂解能)

            Enthalpy from Bond Energies(鍵能中的鍵焓)


            (九)Rates of Chemical Reactions 化學反應速率

            Measurements of Reaction Rates(反應速率的測量)

            Factors Affecting Reaction Rates(影響反應速率的因素)

            Collision Theory of Reaction Rates(化學反應速率的碰撞理論)

            Activation Energy(激活能)

            Reaction Rate Law(化學反應速率定律)

            Reaction Mechanism and Rates of Reaction(化學反應機制和化學反應速率)


            (十)Chemical Equilibrium化學平衡

            Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium(可逆反應和平衡)

            Le Chatelier’s Principle(化學平衡移動原理—勒復特列原理)

            Effects of Changing Conditions(條件變化的影響)

            Effect of Changing the Concentrations(濃度改變的影響)

            Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium(平衡中溫度改變的影響)

            Effect of Pressure on Equilibrium(平衡中壓力改變的影響)

            Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systems(異構系統中的平衡)

            Equilibrium Constant for Systems Involving Solids(涉及固體的系統平衡常數)

            Acid Ionization Constants(酸電離常數)

            Ionization Constant of Water(水電離常數)

            Solubility Products(溶解度產物)

            Common Ion Effect(同離子效應)

            Driving Forces of Reactions(反應推動力)

            Relation of Minimum Energy(Enthalpy) to Maximum Disorder(Entropy)(焓—熵關系)

            Change in Free Energy of a System-the Gibbs Equation(系統中自由能的變化—吉布斯公式)


            (十一)Acids, Bases, and Salts 酸,堿,鹽

            Definitions and Properties(定義和性質)

            Acids(酸)

            Bases(堿)

            Broader Acid-Base Theories(酸—堿理論)

            Conjugate Acids and Bases(共軛酸堿)

            Strengh of Conjugate Acids and Bases(共軛酸堿強度)

            Acid Concentration Expressed as pH(pH表示為酸濃度)

            Indicators(指示劑)

            Titration—Volumetric Analysis(滴定—容量分析法)

            Buffer Solutions(緩沖溶液)

            Salts(鹽)

            Amphoteric Substances(兩性物質)

            Acid Rain—An Environmental Concern(酸雨—共同關心的環境問題)


            (十二)Oxidation-Reduction and Electrochemistry 氧化—還原反應和電化學

            Ionization(電離)

            Oxidation-Reduction and Electrochemistry(氧化---還原反應和電化學)

            Voltaic Cells(伏打電池)

            Electrode Potentials(電極電位)

            Electrolytic Cells(電解池)

            Applications of Electrochemical Cells(Commercial Voltaic Cells)(電化電池的應用)

            Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis(電解現象)

            Relationship Between Quantity of Electricity and Amount of Products(電量和數量的關系)

            Balancing Redox Equations Using Oxidation Numbers(用氧化數配平氧化還原方程式)

            The Ion-Electron Method(離子—電子法)


            (十三)Some Representative Groups and Families 一些有代表性的元素族

            Sulfur Family(S族) Sulfuric Acid(硫酸)

            Other Important Compounds of Sulfur(S元素的其他重要化合物)

            Halogen Family(鹵素)

            Some important Halides and Their Uses(一些重要的鹵化物及其應用)

            Nitrogen Family(氮族)

            Nitric Acid(硝酸)

            Other Important Compounds of Nitrogen(N元素的其他重要化合物)

            Other Members of the Nitrogen Family(N族的其他區成員)

            Metals(金屬) Properties of Metals(金屬性質)

            Some Important Reduction Methods(一些重要的還原方法)

            Alloys(鋁) Metalloids(非金屬)


            (十四)Carbon and Organic Chemistry 碳和有機化學

            Carbon(碳)

            Forms of Carbon(碳的構成)

            Carbon Dioxide(二氧化碳)

            Organic Chemistry(有機化學)

            Hydrocarbons(碳氫化合物)

            Alkane Series(Saturated)(烷烴)

            Alkene Series(Unsaturated)

            Alkyne Series(Unsaturated)(炔屬烴)

            Aromatics(芳烴)

            Isomers(異構體)

            Changing Hydrocarbons(碳氫化合物的改變)

            Hydrocarbon Derivatives(碳氫化合物的衍生物)

            Alcohols—Methanol an Ethanol(酒精—甲醇和乙醇)

            Other Alcohols(其他酒精) Aldehydes(乙醛)

            Organic Acids or Carboxylic Acids(有機酸和羧酸)

            Ketones(酮)

            Ethers(醚)

            Amines and Amino Acids(胺和氨基酸)

            Esters(酯)

            Carbohydrates(碳水化合物)

            Monosaccharides and Disaccharides(單糖和二糖)

            Polysaccharides(多糖)

            Polymers(聚合體)


            (十五)Nucleonics 原子核物理學

            Radioactivity(放射熱)

            The Nature of Radioactive Emissions(放射的本質)

            Methods of Detection of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Rays(α,β和γ射線)

            Decay Series, Transmutations, and Half-life(衰變,嬗變和半衰期)

            Radioactive Dating(放射年代測定法)

            Nuclear Energy(核能)

            Conditions for Fission(核裂變條件)

            Methods of Obtaining Fissionable Material(得到裂變材料的方法)

            Fusion(核聚變)

            Radiation Exposure(輻射暴露)


            (十六)The Laboratory 實驗室

            Technology in the Laboratory(實驗室里的技術)

            Some Basic Setups(一些基本步驟)

            Summary of Qualitative Tests(定性測試總結)

            Ⅰ. Identification of Some Common Gases(常見氣體認證)

            Ⅱ.Identification of Some NegativeIons(負離子認證)

            Ⅲ . Identification of Some Positive Ions(正離子認證)

            Ⅳ .Qualitative Tests of Some Metals(金屬的定性測試


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