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          雅思寫作怎樣寫出高分文章?

          2019-07-17 15:34     供稿單位: 新航道    

          出國英語考試有哪些 雅思6.5是什么水平 雅思閱讀評分標準 托福閱讀評分標準 雅思和托福的區別

            對于萬千小烤鴨們來說,寫作無疑是最令人頭疼的一項。尤其是當考題是關于文化類時, 往往是大家非常頭疼的一類題目了。究其原因的話,無非就是沒有思路,不知道寫什么,不知道怎么展開,因此也會導致寫不夠字數。所以,我們現在就針對這個問題進行一下解析, 從而將文化類話題拿下。


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          典型例題示范:

            下面是我們在備考雅思過程中經常看到的幾個與文化類相關的題目,包括 museum,old buildings,international travel 和 languages 等問題。

            ·Some people claim that government should fund museums and art galleries.  To what extent do you agree or disagree?

            ·Should old buildings be destroyed and replaced with modern ones?

            ·Do the problems brought by international travel outweigh the advantages?

            ·Several languages are dying out every year. Some people do not think it is important and say that our life will be simpler with fewer languages. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

            在學生的作文中我們經常會看到這樣的句子或段落:

            e.g.1: Museums should be built by the government, because the museum is an important part of our culture. So the government should spend money constructing museums.

            e.g.2: International travels can bring many benefits to us. To begin with,     we can know more about foreign cultures, which can broaden our horizons. In addition, traveling can promote the development of local economy.

            e.g.3: Dying out of several languages is harmful for the culture, because

            language is an important part of culture.

            e.g.4: Destroying old buildings is harmful for the local culture, because these buildings are an important part of local culture.

            看過這幾個段落,大家不難發現其中存在的一個共同問題:觀點擴充不夠,論證不充分, 導致內容空洞,思維跳躍,沒有說服力。這是因為有些學生確實想到了某些觀點,但是每每寫到這個觀點時,便覺得這是理所當然,沒有必要再去解釋。這就是跳躍式思維在寫作中一個比較典型的體現。除此之外,導致這種思維出現的另外一個原因就是覺得沒有什么可寫,也就是素材積累的問題了,即素材的缺乏導致了內容的空洞。其實,想要解決上述的問題,并不難, 只要通過簡單的三部曲即可。現在,我們就來看一下,如何進行這三部曲。


          具體三部曲:

            Step 1:定位名詞,即句子中的抽象名詞或概括名詞

            回顧上述幾個句子,雖然有很多名詞,如 museum,travel,language 和 old buildings, 但是比較抽象或者是概括的名詞只有 culture。

            Step 2:具體化,即找到概括名詞在生活中的具體體現

            例如: 在 Wikipedia, 我們可以查到,Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Some aspects of human behavior,  social practices such   as culture, expressive forms such as art, music, dance, ritual, and religion, and technologies such as tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing are said to be cultural universals, found in all human societies. 所以, 當我們看到 museum 或 old buildings 時,我們可以具體到 art works,some rituals,some original tools;當我們看到 travel 時,我們可以具體到 cooking,shelter,clothing 等等。有了這樣的積累之后,在我們寫到 widen one's horizon 或 be harmful for culture 時,我們便能夠繼續寫下去。

            Step 3:引導詞 + 具體化內容

            引出具體化內容的副詞或是詞組有很多,比如 specifically,to be specific 等。

            e.g.1: International traveling should be encouraged greatly since it can widen

            our views. Specifically, we can see lots of traditional arts while traveling to other countries, which can improve our understanding of locals' lifestyle, their customs, beliefs, and traditions, helping us relate to the their culture past, enlarging our horizons.

            e.g.2: Museums deserve financial support from the government, since they are

            always attached to local culture. Specifically, we can see lots of traditional arts in museums, which can deepen our understanding of ancestors' past, their customs, beliefs, and traditions, helping us relate to the our past, enhancing our sense of belonging.

            e.g.3: Dying out of certain languages can bring potential negative influence on preserving certain culture, since language is one of the indispensable aspects of a culture. Specifically, via using or learning a language, we can expose ourselves to lots of traditional arts, literature  works, which can deepen our understanding of ancestors' past, their customs, beliefs, and traditions, helping us relate to the our past,  enhancing  our sense of belonging.

            通過以上段落,不難發現多數文化類題目在寫作過程中,我們可以將 culture 具體成 lifestyle,customs,beliefs,traditional arts 或 literature works 等,將這些內容用于 expand horizons 的論證中就可以在一定程度上避免內容空洞,思維跳躍的問題。了解完這些之后,親愛的烤鴨們會發現文章內容確實充實不少,但是組成一段還是不夠,所以一般情況下我們還需要 point,例如下面這段:

            International travels can bring many benefits to us. To begin with, we can know more about foreign cultures, which can broaden our horizons. In addition, traveling can promote the development of local economy.

            我們上面已經補充了關于 broaden our horizons 的具體內容,接下來我們再來看一下另外一個 point。很明顯,另外的一個 point 中的抽象或概括名詞是 economy。An economy is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents(from Wikipedia),所以我們也很容易能夠想到被旅游業所推動的經濟增長點,如 accommodation,catering,retailing 等。所以關于 promote local economy,我們可以做出以下擴展:

            Traveling can promote the development of local economy. Specifically,as tourists flock in, the extra demand for food, accommodation and other goods or services will boost related industries, generating more job opportunities for local residents and creating revenues for the government.

            這樣需要具體化的名詞在雅思寫作過程中我們還會遇到很多,如 happiness,job satisfaction 等,大家可以通過查詢 Wikipedia 或相關工具書獲得。當然,在寫做課堂講解過程中,也會有大量的補充。總之,通過將名詞具體化,利用三部曲,多積累,多應用, 小烤鴨們寫作一定能打破 5.5 分的魔咒。


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